Children with ADHD (also known as ADD or ADHD) often come up with bad focus on one thing, less control over their impulses and hyperactive. But what is ADHD? What are the causes? How can the disease be treated?
The abbreviation ADHD stands for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. By and large, the same is true of the other abbreviations ADS and ADHD: attention deficits, impulsive and perceptual deficits and an enormous urge to move, which is also described as hyperactivity. The disease is the most common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents, with boys being affected much more frequently than girls. Mostly the diagnosis is made in kindergarten or school age, although affected children were often already difficult babies.
ADHD is a neurobiological dysfunction in the brain and not the result of a false education, as is sometimes commonly assumed. The physical causes are not yet clear, but it is assumed that a faulty information processing between certain parts of the brain underlying the disease. Psychosocial influences can aggravate the disease, but can be ruled out as the only cause of the disorder. Such influences include, for example, difficult family relationships, mental illnesses in the family but also parental errors. Furthermore, drug abuse, alcohol and nicotine abuse of the mother in pregnancy and lack of oxygen to birth can contribute to a more severe course.
This is what the abbreviations stand for: ADHD - attention deficit hyperactivity disorderADHD - attention deficit syndromeADHD - Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity DisorderHKS - hyperkinetic syndrome POS - Psych organic syndrome Children whose families already have ADHD are also at a higher risk of suffering from it. Also giftedness and diminished intelligence as well as other diseases and their drug treatment have been identified as risk factors.
Children suffering from ADHD are characterized by behavioral problems in three different areas. The first major symptom is attention deficit disorder. The affected children have a hard time concentrating on one task, are easily distracted, start one thing at a time without completing things, and often have problems with structures. The second main symptom of ADHD is missing or lacking impulse control. Patients are very impatient, poorly integrated into groups and easily irritable. Finally, the third major symptom is extremely high activity. The children are unable to sit still and have to move constantly. They have trouble with silence and usually play very loud. In addition, about one third of those affected have other symptoms. For example, some children find it difficult to build relationships with others, others suffer from a lack of self-confidence, or they have learning disabilities. If the diagnosis of ADHD has been made by a doctor, there are various treatment methods, so that the affected and their relatives can live better with it, because the disease is not curable. First, the disease is treated with various non-drug therapies. This includes, for example, that in the school of the affected child education and intervention is operated, after all, the children of teachers and classmates are not necessarily perceived as ill, but often simply as a "troublemaker". In severe cases, it may be helpful to have the child in a special facility. It can also be successful to treat and train the parents or the entire family so that it is easier for the next of kin to deal with ADHD. On the other hand, children and adolescents are often treated with the active ingredient methylphenidate, commonly referred to as Ritalin, the most popular trade name. The active ingredient ensures that the imbalance of messenger substances in the brain is regulated. The children and adolescents can usually concentrate better after taking them and are more balanced. The school and family life can be handled better by them.
Adults may also suffer from ADHD, although often less so than children, as they have been managing the symptoms of the disease through years of practice. Nevertheless, sufferers are limited by the disruption in their lives and suffer greatly. Lack of impulse control makes the social life of adults with ADHD difficult. Inattention affects the professional and private life. Often, psychological and psychiatric care is needed for everyday coping.
However, children diagnosed with ADHD and treated appropriately have a relatively good chance of living a normal life. In recent studies, it has been found that about one-third still have at least one ADHD at the age of 18, compared with only eight percent of the 25-year-olds.