Some of the children suffering from ADD / ADHD remain symptomatic until adulthood. Some learn to control or compensate for their symptoms, some are less fortunate and develop, if they have not been successfully treated in childhood and adolescence, specific problems whose causes are partly unaware of them.Basically, ADHD sufferers feel different, they have faster mood changes, a different pace of life or a different sense of time. Their perception, their memory and their attention function differently. If their situation is not understood or diagnosed and no treatment is performed, they can also be broken. Compared to childhood, the symptoms are usually changed, ADHD changes during adulthood, and a complex clinical picture emerges that can cover the entire spectrum of psychiatry. We expressly point out that these questionnaires only give a suspicion for ADHD or depression. Under no circumstances can a disease be properly diagnosed on the basis of the questionnaires alone.
The core symptoms are:
Difficulties in the workplace Problems structured and focused work
Motivation problems characterize people with an ADHD problem. The result is that they do not start in time, work everything at the last minute and make many careless mistakes. They make their stuff incomplete, learn only after many repetitions, often fail at trifles and often stay below their potential. The situation is aggravated by little self-discipline, no sense of time and a partially existing and possibly untreated dyslexia and mathematical weakness.
No team players - outsider position
People with ADHD can hardly do something that they do not enjoy doing. Her chaotic and haphazard way of working and her superficial and erratic work style makes her unpopular with work colleagues. These may need to catch and cushion the failings of the ADHD practitioner. The tendency for constant discussions, excuses and, to find the mistakes with others, does not make them a team player.
For most people, fulfilling their desire to have children is a great stroke of luck and at the same time a challenge that has to be mastered. Especially if ADHD is involved! Often parents only come up with the idea of possibly being affected by the diagnosis of their child. At this point, there is already a long history of suffering behind them - their own and that of their children! In families with ADHD sufferers there is no doubt more stress than in other families. In partner relationships that "only" consist of a victim, the partners can compensate each other for possible deficits. In parent-child relationships where both are involved, it is a great challenge for parents, as well as children, to build a family balance. In order for children to be able to develop in the best possible way, they need a structured and supportive environment and recognition of their personality. Especially mothers and fathers with ADHD find it particularly difficult to cushion the (typical ADHD) difficulties of their children.
ADHD sufferers have great strengths and enormous potential. They are very original and creative people. Because they cannot stick to rules and question everything, they are often the uncomfortable brave mastermind.
Our world would be poorer without ADHD, because we need them as those who innovate, revolution and reform, who question and have the courage to "be different".
Find the right niche
There are many successful people who have ADHD without disease - as a standard variant in the sense of a "certain way of being". If these people have found the right professional niche for themselves, they are often ingenious and unbeatable in their zealous zeal and their tireless actionism. In the media or as computer professionals, we often find them as high-functioning ADHD livers, much appreciated but exhausting for their fellow human beings. However, the same ADHS teacher can fail miserably even in a job as a financial accountant, because as properties such as sense of order and thoroughness are required of him, which are not among his strengths. It is always a question of whether ADHD manages to find the right occupational niche in which to live out his potential and, of course, the right partner who manages to balance his extremes.
Between genius and madness
ADHD is always a phenomenon that moves between genius and madness. Transitionless everything is possible, from highly talented "scattered professor" or the eloquent entertainer to a severely disturbed chaotic and failed man who breaks apart at his many failures. It is basically the many positive properties of AD (H) S to develop. Her instability is at the same time her creative style, her unpredictability and flexibility at the same time. Her risk behavior also her curiosity and her courage. These positive sides also make them special and original people!
About 10 million people are affected by ADHD in USA - children, adolescents and adults! ADHD is hereditary to a high percentage, so that difficulties usually appear as early as childhood. Many sufferers have already passed an odyssey of various treatments and hospital stays. Neither antidepressants nor neuroleptics have really been able to help them with depression, tormenting restlessness, chaos and difficulty concentrating. Maybe they even worsened the condition, because the patient still has a few more construction sites, but still no overview and structure in life. What is needed is a therapy concept that is tailored to the problem and the particular problems with ADHD.
The diagnosis of AD (H) S is a puzzle diagnosis, which is based on the current psychological findings, the life history, especially the school career and the family conflicts. In particular, this is a targeted questioning of childhood ADHD symptoms. Were you fidgety and restless, could not you sit still? Have you had frequent brawls in class? Back then you were already angry or chaotic? Important information can be provided by primary school certificates. Teachers could always be very describe well students with their abilities and deficits and so one often finds in the testimonials the exact description of the pediatric ADHD symptoms such as: is often distracted, talks a lot, is superficial, sloppy, forgetful, does not tolerate with his classmates, does not hold on call rules, can, if he wants, etc.
Current situation - self-assessment
How does the person concerned estimate the severity of the difficulties himself? Which of these particularly affect him? Which type of ADHD is he? Up-to-date information from parents and life partners Important in diagnostics is also a so-called third-party anamnesis. This refers to the questioning of the parents, who should describe the problems they had in education. Even if you have a different perception of your own childhood, this information is often very enlightening and complements the overall picture. It is also important to interview the partners.
Scientific test procedures
There are numerous tests for the diagnosis of ADHD, as well as attention tests. None of these tests is evidence, however. But you can provide additional information on the presence of ADHD.
Additional diseases (comorbidities)
What other mental disorders are there? Only one in five ADHD-affected adults has ADHD exclusively. The course and the symptoms of ADHD change, so that in adulthood often other illnesses are in the foreground (depression, eating disorders, addiction,) and ADHD symptoms as such are often not recognized. There is no laboratory value or imaging techniques that can ensure the diagnosis beyond doubt. So the ADHD diagnosis has to be composed of much information. It is always important that you can always find ADHD in the course of life, because ADHD runs like a thread through life.
It is now considered certain that ADHD is hereditary to a high percentage. The likelihood for children to have ADHD, even if one parent is affected, is up to 30%. But you can almost always find other family members who also show ADHD symptoms. The degree of expression can vary greatly. If both parents have a pronounced ADHD, the probability that their biological children develop an ADD is almost 90%. The safest evidence of heredity can be provided by scientists using the twin research. Identical twins have an identical genetic material, while dizygotic twins have different genetic material, as is common with siblings of different ages. It is believed that monozygotic and dizygotic twins grow up under relatively equal conditions. The results show that ADD is similar in almost 80% of identical twins, as opposed to only 28% in dizygotic twins. This means that with the same genetic material, the probability of developing ADHD increases by a factor of three.
Influence of the social situation
A supportive, loving and clearly structured home is helpful for coping with everyday life. Because children who have ADHD are less stress-resistant and resilient. ADHD will become more pronounced if the family home is problematic and stressful, or if the children have suffered severe fatalities. The less support and structure the family has been able to convey to the child, the less corrective and support it has experienced and the more clearly ADHD can develop. In addition, maternal drug dependence and cigarette and alcohol use during pregnancy may increase the risk of ADHD. Premature births and birth defects also carry a higher risk.
What exactly happens in the brain of an AD (H) S-er?ADHD is a neurobiological specialty in dopamine metabolism.
The research on this is not yet complete, and there are many theories that need further confirmation. What is certain today is that ADHD is a disorder or a standard variant of the frontal brain. The frontal brain is responsible for the regulation of behavior, but also for decisions, evaluation of experiences and for the entire control of the organism. The frontal brain or forebrain controls the information processing of all the millions of stimuli that flow to us every second. It has to filter, sort, store, delete or forward these stimuli. This presupposes that information processing and selection are prioritized in our brain. If these filters do not work properly, a data crash or data shortage will occur. The brain cannot reasonably process the incoming stimuli, and the ADHD is no longer in a position to sort and use the wealth of information in a meaningful way, or to weight it sufficiently and evaluate it. Let's get this straight. The brain is bombarded with 400 billion bits of information per second. From this unimaginable flood of information our brain filters out the most essential information so that only 2000 bits per second come into our consciousness. If we look for example focusing on a lecture, the brain filters out the extraneous background information so that we can only hear the lecture. We perceive only very marginally that the neighbor cleans his nose, the traffic outside is loud, just one plane is flying over the building and two rows behind us is being talked about. The AD (H) S brain cannot filter out these background sounds so successfully and so he takes the ticking clock of the neighbors or the whisper of the next man equal to loud and thus was as important as the one that he can perceive instantly. ADHD sufferers also have a disorder of impulse control and behavioral regulation. This is also controlled by the frontal brain. Here, the response to stimuli is significantly increased. Just as the stimuli unfiltered on the ADHD collapse, so unfiltered he hurls his feelings into the world, often with fatal consequences. A proper behavioral regulation cannot be done this way. Instead, the inhibition and control systems of the frontal brain fail and cause the overreaching, unpredictable feelings and states of excitement of the ADHD sufferer. From a medical point of view, new PET examinations (positron emission tomography) have clearly demonstrated that the anterior parts of the brain are less well supplied with blood in ADHD patients. It could also be detected a lower nerve activity in certain brain regions. Today it is believed that the inhibitory functions of the frontal brain are not sufficiently activated, so that the braking and inhibition systems of the brain do not work satisfactorily. This creates the overreactions and feelings. This also affects the motor actions. Here the ADHD man finds it difficult to dose his strength and to coordinate his fine motor skills well. The ADHD teacher also has problems sustaining his motivation over a longer period of time.
Basically, not every ADHD is in need of treatment. Both the one and the other variant are initially normal appearances in human life. Many people with ADHD have found good ways to deal with their ADHD or have realized themselves in areas where they benefit from their characteristics. ADHD always becomes in need of treatment only when it comes to considerable difficulties in the area of work or relationships or when depression, addiction and other mental illnesses occur. It is necessary to offer very special therapy programs, possibly also a medication that has been proven for 60 years in ADHD. Here are also new approaches to addiction therapy. After a successful ADHD diagnosis, a multimodal treatment is recommended:
For sufferers, it is important to deal with the causes and their very personal symptoms. Often a great relief comes when diagnostic features can be related to one's own life, and thus one's "own failure" can be seen from another perspective. Because of their "special way of being," ADHD sufferers need to train a few traits that are not inherent in their cradle. These include: self-organization, self-control, self-criticism, patience, mindfulness, serenity, letting go and tolerance.
Medications can correct the neurological problems that underlie ADHD. In the treatment of ADHD, various medications are available. In conversation with a doctor, various questions can be discussed: Which are suitable for me? Should I take medication at all? What side effects do I have to expect? It is also important at what time a medication is being considered. How long has the diagnosis been known? Is she already accepted or still quarreling with it? What has possibly been tried? A medication can be started and stopped at any time. It is not a life decision to opt for pharm- maceutical support in phases.Behavior therapy / depth psychological therapy A psychotherapeutic treatment can (also in conjunction with a medication) lead to a significant improvement in the current life situation. A behavioral approach can help put the ADHD-typical chaotic lifestyle into a structure. And so to change possibly long learned negative strategies. In people with ADHD symptoms, it is important to replace the missing internal structures with external markers and to learn skills that help them better control their impulsive behaviors. Often, many unresolved conflicts have accumulated in the life of an ADHD victim, and self-esteem has not developed sufficiently. Here it may be useful to work up the past difficulties in a depth psychology therapy.
ADHD can accompany those affected in adulthood. Many even get the diagnosis then. In ADHD, most people think of children and adolescents. But also about two to three percent of adults suffer from it. Because in about half of those affected, the symptoms do not completely disappear after childhood, but continue to lead to significant limitations. Often ADHD is detected even in adulthood.
Hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention remain the key symptoms of ADHD beyond childhood. Usually, only a small amount of hyperactivity is externally visible, although many adults with ADHD suffer from a constant inner restlessness. Adults with ADHD often have problems structuring their everyday lives and tackling tasks in an organized way. Often they seem forgetful or clumsy, for example they do not know where they left their keys and are always late for appointments. They sometimes talk a lot and are very jumpy. Sometimes they are noticed for being very impulsive, often interrupting other people and being very impatient. Up to a third of sufferers also suffer from difficulty controlling their emotions (emotional deregulation). They are quickly angry, frustrated or irritated. This can sometimes be similar to the symptoms of borderline disorder. Many adults who have ADHD also have other problems. So they tend more likely to risky behavior, depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol or drug dependence.
Important: The disorder does not recur in adulthood. Abnormalities that are typical for ADHD already existed in childhood among those affected. However, they may not have been recognized or ranked as such at the time.
Many adults bring with them the diagnosis of ADHD from childhood. Sometimes, however, the diagnosis is actually made in adulthood. There are specialists for psychiatry and psychotherapy as well as psychological or medical psychotherapists who have sufficient experience with ADHD and are then the right contact person. Many sufferers also turn to adult ADHD outpatient clinics, which are often given to university hospitals. Particularly suitable are psychotherapists who offer behavioral therapy. The expert will inquire about the patient's childhood and adolescence to see if and what ADHD-related symptoms were already present. He will also ask about currently existing ADHD symptoms and inquire how they are causing problems and limitations in everyday life. In particular, it is important in adults to differentiate ADHD from other mental illnesses such as depression, bipolar disorder, addictions and personality disorders. At the same time, adults with ADHD almost always suffer from at least one additional mental illness.
In most cases, treatment should be given. When ADHD is diagnosed in adulthood, most sufferers often have years of ordeal. Even simple measures can help to get along better in everyday life. So it helps to structure each day exactly, to plan the upcoming tasks and to write down on a list. Larger tasks should, if possible, be divided into smaller individual steps. These lists can then be processed during the day and tick off the individual steps. Reminder functions of mobile phone, the alarm clock or sticky notes on the front door, refrigerator or in the car remind of important dates. These should also be clearly indicated in a single calendar. In the morning the view in the calendar, in the evening the preparation of the task list for the next day. Fixed seats for glasses, mobile phone, house keys and car keys. Such routines support ADHD patients in everyday life. Family and relatives can also help and, for example, remind of important appointments and tasks. Beware of annoying distractions: sufferers should create a quiet workplace as possible, radio or TV should not run in the background. If they encounter a new task while they are still working on something else, they should not interrupt their activity as much as possible, but should record the task for later.
Often it is difficult for those affected to consistently implement these simple measures. The task of the expert is then to accompany the implementation, to review and if necessary to change the strategy together with the patient. In addition, a behavioural therapy or treatment with drugs in question. Admitted to adults are the psych stimulant methylphenidate and the non-stimulant atomoxetine. Both behavioural and medications are not as well-studied in adults as they are in children. But medications still have a high priority here. A sole behavioural therapy is recommended only in very mild cases or if the medication is not tolerated. Both methods in combination complement each other very well. In adults with depression and concomitant ADHD, the antidepressant bupropion may also be used. It relieves symptoms of depression and ADHD. However, it is not approved for the treatment of ADHD. For depression in addition to ADHD, venlafaxine is also often used. However, it only has a minor effect on ADHD symptoms.